Azure Synapse Analytics (formerly SQL DW) )is the next evolution of Azure SQL Data Warehouse. It is a combination of enterprise data warehousing and Big Data Analytics. A Synapse SQL Pool is the enterprise data warehousing feature that is generally available in Azure Synapse Analytics. This is a collection of analytic resources and the size and performance of the pool is determined by the selected Data Warehousing units (DWU). It has a massively parallel processing (MPP) architecture which makes the data computation very fast.
Usually an extract, load and transform (ELT) process is used for data loading in the Synapse